Fast Facts

Canberra; 373,000
7,692,024 square kilometers (2,969,906 square miles)
English, native languages
Protestant, Roman Catholic
Australian dollar
Life Expectancy:
GDP per Capita:
U.S. $26,900
Literacy Percent:
Flag: Australia
Map: Australia

An island continent located between the Indian and Pacific Oceans, Australia combines a wide variety of landscapes. The highest mountains are part of the Great Dividing Range that lines the east coast from Cape York Peninsula south to the state of Victoria. Most people reside along the southeast coast, in cities like Melbourne or Sydney, because winds from the southeast release rain there—leaving the interior beyond the mountains arid or semiarid. West of the Great Dividing Range the landscape consists mostly of plains and plateaus; the Macdonnell Ranges near the country's center are an exception. The Great Artesian Basin provides underground water for a region that would otherwise be desert. Vegetation ranges from rain forests in the far north to steppes and deserts in the vast interior (which Australians call the outback). There are more than 130 species of marsupials, such as kangaroos, koalas, and wombats. The Murray-Darling River Basin, covering about 14 percent of the continent, helps sustain wheat and wool industries.

Founded in 1788 as a British convict colony, Australia was a place of banishment until gold strikes in 1851 opened floodgates of immigration. Independence came in 1901, with a constitution adapted in part from that of the United States. Immigration has been key to Australia's development since 1788; from 1945 through 2000 almost six million immigrants arrived. Aborigines number about 517,000, and the government is making efforts to settle aboriginal land rights. Australia has one of the world's highest living standards with 85 percent living in urban areas.


  • Industry: Mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals, steel
  • Agriculture: Wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits; cattle
  • Exports: Coal, gold, meat, wool, alumina, iron ore

—Text From National Geographic Atlas of the World, Eighth Edition

Related Features

  • Picture of man between two round balancing boulders, Northern Territory Australia

    Best Trips of 2014

    National Geographic Traveler presents the New Year's must-see places. From Argentina to Oz, this list reflects what’s authentic, culturally rich, sustainable-minded, and of course superlative in the world of travel today.

  • Picture of rock formations at Loch Ard Gorge, Great Ocean Road, Victoria, Australia

    An Insider’s Guide to Australia’s Great Ocean Road

    Here’s a brief guide to maximizing your time on Australia’s rugged southeastern coast.

  • Photo: Drinks at the Opera Bar in Sydney

    48 Hours in Sydney

    Sydney’s not-so-secret ingredient? You’ll find it at the harbor.

Take a Nat Geo Trip

Select a destination or trip type to find a trip:

See All Trips »

2015 Traveler Photo Contest

  • Picture of a tree under night stars in Deadvlei, Namibia

    See the Winners

    Explore the top photos, share your favorites, and browse all entries.

Take a Nat Geo Trip

Select a destination or trip type to find a trip:

See All Trips »

Get Social With Nat Geo Travel