- Sarajevo; 579,000
- 51,129 square kilometers (19,741 square miles)
- Croatian, Serbian, Bosnian
- Muslim, Orthodox, Roman Catholic
- Life Expectancy:
- GDP per Capita:
- U.S. $1,900
- Literacy Percent:
Bosnia and Herzegovina Facts Flag
In mountainous southeastern Europe, Bosnia's Muslims, or Bosniacs, trace their ancestry to Christian Slavs who converted to Islam under the Ottomans for tax and landholding advantages. Yugoslavia recognized Bosniacs as a separate people in 1969. Muslim Slavs and Roman Catholic Croats voted in early 1992 for independence from Yugoslavia; most Eastern Orthodox Serbs were fiercely opposed. In the ensuing 1992-95 civil war, some 250,000 people died. The Dayton Peace Accord ended the war and partitioned the country into a Muslim-Croat region and a Serbian region (Serbian Republic). High unemployment and ethnic tensions continue to hamper the country.
- Industry: Steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, vehicle assembly
- Agriculture: Wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock
- Exports: Metals, clothing, wood products
—Text From National Geographic Atlas of the World, Eighth Edition
Bosnia and Herzegovina's capital city boasts mountain views and charming, cafe-filled streets.
For more than a millennium, migrations and wars have dispersed Serbs across former Yugoslavia, the defunct federation once dominated by Serbia.
Explore this city's historic, war-torn past on a running route that takes in mosques, museums, and monuments.
2016 National Geographic Travel Photographer of the Year Contest
Browse photos of nature, cities, and people and share your favorite photos.