Fast Facts

Beijing; 10,849,000
9,596,960 square kilometers (3,705,405 square miles)
Chinese (Mandarin), Cantonese, other dialects and minority languages
Taoist, Buddhist, Muslim
Yuan, also referred to as the Renminbi
Life Expectancy:
GDP per Capita:
U.S. $4,700
Literacy Percent:
Flag: China
Map: China

China is the world's most populous country with more than 1.3 billion people—20 percent of the Earth's population. Occupying most of East Asia, it is the fourth largest country in area (after Russia, Canada, and the U.S.). China's geography is highly diverse, with hills, plains, and river deltas in the east and deserts, high plateaus, and mountains in the west. Climate is equally varied, ranging from tropical in the south (Hainan) to subarctic in northeastern China (Manchuria).

China's geography causes an uneven population distribution; 94 percent live in the eastern third of the country. Shandong province, with its mild coastal climate, has more than 90 million people, but Tibet, with its harsh mountain plateau climate, has less than 3 million. The coastal regions are the most economically developed—acting as a magnet for an estimated 150 million Chinese migrants from the poor rural interior. This figure, from 2008, grows by an estimated 10 million Chinese each year.

China has perhaps the world's longest continuous civilization; for more than 40 centuries its people created a culture with strong philosophies, traditions, and values. The start of the Han dynasty 2,200 years ago marked the rise of military power that created an empire—one that provided a golden age in art, politics, and technology. Ethnic Chinese still refer to themselves as the "People of Han," and Han Chinese constitute 92 percent of the country's population.

Successive dynasties developed a system of bureaucratic control that gave agrarian-based China an advantage over rivals. By 2030 it's estimated that some 60 percent of the country's citizens will live in urban areas.

The first half of the 20th century saw the fall of the last Chinese emperor, Japanese invasion, World War II, and civil war between Chinese Communist and Nationalist forces—ending with the retreat of the Nationalists to Taiwan. The People's Republic of China from 1949 to 1976 imposed state control on the economy. Since 1979, China has reformed its economy and allowed competition, and today it has one of the world's highest rates of growth, averaging nearly 10 percent since the late 1970s.

Rapid industrial development has increased pollution—with China having four of the world's ten most polluted cities when it comes to air quality. The largest producer and consumer of coal, the country is turning away from coal toward clean hydroelectric resources, such as the Three Gorges Dam.

Politically China still maintains strict control over its people. Chinese rule over Tibet remains controversial, fighting with Muslim separatists in Xinjiang continues, and political issues with Taiwan remain unresolved. China regained Hong Kong from Britain in 1997 and Macau from Portugal in 1999.

In 2003 China became only the third nation (after Russia and the U.S.) to launch a manned spaceflight. The country launched a lunar orbiter in 2007 with the possibility of a manned mission to the moon by 2020.

A devastating earthquake hit Sichuan province in May 2008, leaving some 87,000 people dead or missing, injuring hundreds of thousands, and causing millions of people to lose their homes.


  • Industry: Iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments, textiles and apparel, petroleum, cement
  • Agriculture: Rice, wheat, potatoes, sorghum; pork; fish
  • Exports: Machinery and equipment, textiles and clothing, footwear, toys and sporting goods, mineral fuels

—Text From National Geographic Atlas of the World, Eighth Edition

Related Features

Take a Nat Geo Trip

Select a destination or trip type to find a trip:

See All Trips »

2016 National Geographic Travel Photographer of the Year Contest

  • Picture of a volcano on Reunion Island

    Who Will Win?

    Browse photos of nature, cities, and people and share your favorite photos.

Take a Nat Geo Trip

Select a destination or trip type to find a trip:

See All Trips »

Get Social With Nat Geo Travel