- Helsinki; 1,075,000
- 338,145 square kilometers (130,558 square miles)
- Finnish, Swedish
- Evangelical Lutheran
- Life Expectancy:
- GDP per Capita:
- U.S. $25,800
- Literacy Percent:
Finland Facts Flag
Finland, in northern Europe, is low-lying in the south and center with mountains in the north. One quarter of its territory lies north of the Arctic Circle, and the country experiences long, harsh winters. Most of the population is concentrated in the triangle formed by the cities of Helsinki (the capital), Tampere, and Turku.
Coniferous forests and more than 180,000 lakes grace Finland, which maintains a fleet of icebreakers to keep ports open during the long winters. Despite a short growing season Finland is self-sufficient in meat, grains, and dairy products. For years, the wood and paper industry dominated Finland's exports; but now the metal and engineering aspects of industry have surpassed forest products.
After six centuries of union with Sweden, Finland came under Russian rule in 1809. The Finns declared independence in 1917 but lost territory to the Soviets in World War II. Close economic ties between the two nations existed until the U.S.S.R. was dissolved in 1991. Since then Finland has strengthened links with Western Europe by joining the EU. Helsinki remains a preeminent center for international diplomacy.
- Industry: Metal products, electronics, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, copper refining
- Agriculture: Barley, wheat, sugar beets, potatoes; dairy cattle; fish
- Exports: Machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, timber, paper, pulp
—Text From National Geographic Atlas of the World, Eighth Edition
Travel to the stylish streets, historic quarters, and cultural delights of some of Europe's most beloved cities with these photos submitted to My Shot by users like you.
The Finnish love of nature, steamy saunas, and bold design fuels the creative spirit in the capital city of Helsinki.
The rich life of Svalbard, Norway's Arctic archipelago, faces a creeping thaw.
Travel Photos From Your Shot
See Captivating Photos of Our Days' End—Submitted by Members of the Your Shot Community
Shop National Geographic
Special Ad Section
Watch as Nat Geo photographers reveal what drives them to create iconic images.