Fast Facts

Ulaanbaatar; 812,000
1,564,116 square kilometers (603,909 square miles)
Khalkha Mongol, Turkic, Russian
Tibetan Buddhist, Lamaism
Life Expectancy:
GDP per Capita:
U.S. $1,900
Literacy Percent:
Flag: Mongolia
Map: Mongolia

Mongolia is a large landlocked country between two larger countries—Russia and China. Located on mountains and plateaus, it is one of the world's highest countries, with an average elevation of 1,580 meters (5,180 feet). Mongolia suffers temperature extremes, and southern Mongolia is dominated by the Gobi desert. Genghis Khan's Mongol horsemen conquered much of Asia and Europe during the 13th century. Mongolia became a communist country in 1924, but in 1990 multiparty elections were held. Poverty is a major concern, but copper, cashmere, and gold exports help the economy.


  • Industry: Construction materials, mining, oil, food and beverages, processing of animal products
  • Agriculture: Wheat, barley, potatoes, forage crops; sheep
  • Exports: Copper, gold, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides

—Text From National Geographic Atlas of the World, Eighth Edition

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