Fast Facts

Dushanbe; 554,000
143,100 square kilometers (55,251 square miles)
Tajik, Russian
Sunni and Shiite Muslim
Life Expectancy:
GDP per Capita:
U.S. $1,300
Literacy Percent:
Flag: Tajikistan
Map: Tajikistan

Mountains cover more than 90 percent of this Central Asian republic, whose river valleys are home to a majority of the people. About two-thirds of the people are ethnic Tajiks, but about a quarter are Uzbeks. Shortly after independence in 1991, Tajikistan endured a five-year civil war between the Moscow-backed government and the Islamist-led opposition. A peace agreement was signed in 1997, but the political turmoil has depressed the economy. Tajikistan relies heavily on Russian assistance, and there are some 23,000 Russian troops guarding Tajikistan's borders—against weapons, drugs, and Islamic extremists.


  • Industry: Aluminum, zinc, lead, chemicals and fertilizers
  • Agriculture: Cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
  • Exports: Aluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles

—Text From National Geographic Atlas of the World, Eighth Edition

Related Features

  • Photo: Snow leopard at night

    Snow Leopards

    The elusive Central Asian snow leopard steps into a risk-filled future.

  • Picture of two Bactrian camels on a grassy plain

    Bactrian Camel

    Bactrian camel: One hump or two? Learn about these truly wild, but endangered, camels of Mongolia and China.

  • <p>Photo: Well-dressed women walk in front of ice sculpture</p>

    Frozen Assets

    Awash in oil wealth, Siberia goes upscale.

Take a Nat Geo Trip

Select a destination or trip type to find a trip:

See All Trips »

2016 National Geographic Travel Photographer of the Year Contest

  • Picture of a volcano on Reunion Island

    Who Will Win?

    Browse photos of nature, cities, and people and share your favorite photos.

Take a Nat Geo Trip

Select a destination or trip type to find a trip:

See All Trips »

Get Social With Nat Geo Travel