- Hanoi; 3,977,000
- 331,114 square kilometers (127,844 square miles)
- Vietnamese, English, French, Chinese, Khmer, local languages
- Buddhist, Hoa Hao, Cao Dai, Christian, indigenous beliefs, Muslim
- Life Expectancy:
- GDP per Capita:
- U.S. $2,300
- Literacy Percent:
Vietnam Facts Flag
Vietnam, in Southeast Asia, stretches 1,600 kilometers (1,000 miles) north to south, but is only about 40 kilometers (25 miles) wide at its narrowest point near the country's center. The Red River delta lowlands in the north are separated from the huge Mekong Delta in the south by long, narrow coastal plains backed by the forested Annam highlands. Hanoi, the capital, is the main city on the Red River and Ho Chi Minh City, or Saigon, is the main city on the Mekong.
Independent for almost a thousand years, Vietnam fell prey to French colonialism in the mid-19th century. During Japanese occupation in World War II, communist leader Ho Chi Minh formed the Vietminh, an alliance of communist and noncommunist nationalist groups. Armed struggle won independence in 1954 and led to the partition of Vietnam.
For two decades noncommunist South Vietnam, aided by the U.S., fought North Vietnam, backed by China and the Soviet Union. American troops withdrew in 1973, and two years later South Vietnam fell. In 1976 the country was reunified under a communist regime.
To replace support lost when the U.S.S.R. dissolved, economic policy encouraged a free-market system as well as trade with the West. Vietnam saw dramatic economic progress throughout most of the 1990s. In 1995 the U.S. resumed diplomatic relations. Economic growth stalled, however, with the Asian financial crisis. A stock exchange was launched in 2000, and Vietnam has seen increasing levels of foreign investment.
- Industry: Food processing, garments, shoes, machine-building
- Agriculture: Paddy rice, corn, potatoes, rubber; poultry; fish
- Exports: Crude oil, marine products, rice, coffee, rubber
—Text From National Geographic Atlas of the World, Eighth Edition
Adventurer Alex Honnold's wildest dream trip is to climb his way across Southeast Asia and Australia. Learn more about this trip and others in our Ultimate Adventure Bucket List.
Vietnam’s exotic capital lends itself to impromptu travel, spurring a gregarious American to find his way with a smile rather than a guidebook.
In food-minded cities, certain areas become known for certain tastes.
Travel Photos From Your Shot
See Captivating Photos of Our Days' End—Submitted by Members of the Your Shot Community
Shop National Geographic
Special Ad Section
Watch as Nat Geo photographers reveal what drives them to create iconic images.